Sandy Mulligan volunteered with a few days of the outbreak of World War 1. His service record indicates his service began on August 10, 1914. In April 1915 he was amongst the New Zealand troops who landed at Gallipoli in the Dardenelles. He was there until evacuated in December 1915.
Before enlisting, Sandy would have read newspapers and so been aware of the escalating events in Europe that would lead to War. Here a sample of the sorts of stories he would have read.
The news of the assassination at Serajevo of the Grand Duke Francis Ferdinand of Austria and his wife will cause a painful sensation in the courts of Europe. The tragedy is particularly uncompromising in its finality. It removes a figure destined, if his life had been spared, to ascend the throne of Austria-Hungary as successor to the venerable Emperor Francis Joseph, who must inevitably lay down very shortly the burden of sovereignty which he has borne for over sixty-five years. The heir apparent to the throne of the Hapsburgs was no petty prince, but the ruler in prospect of one of the great nations of Europe. Perhaps, if his destiny had been less high, he would not have fallen a victim to the assassin. Upon that aspect of the case the circumstances may yet throw more light. Nothing can soften, however, the blow which the House of Hapsburg has received in being, deprived of the representative upon whom its hopes were mainly set. The Archduke Francis Ferdinand was a man still in the prime of life, and his career had been such as to justify every expectation that he would prove a worthy and capable successor to the Emperor who has reigned and held the esteem of his people during a period crammed with more dangers, disasters, and disappointments than usually mark the life of a single Sovereign. The ancient House of Hapsburg has suffered some cruel blows during the present Emperor's lifetime. Sixteen years ago, the Empress Elizabeth, who was particularly beloved by her people, was cruelly assassinated at Geneva by an Italian anarchist. There was apparently no distinct motive for the crime except a thirst for Royal blood. ....[see the original at PapersPast]
DETAILS OF THE CRIME,
A DARING DEED,
YOUNG STUDENT THE SHOOTER.
BOTH ASSAILANTS ARRESTED
NEARLY LYNCHED BY THE CROWD
SERAJEVO, June 29.
(Received June 29, at 5 p.m.)
Gabrienovic, a compositor, who threw the bomb, belonged to Trebinje. He was arrested. Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife continued on their way to the Town Hall, where, addressing the burgomaster, the Archduke said in a loud voice: "We come on a visit and bombs are thrown; it is infamous."
After a brief reception, while the Archduke and his wife were proceeding towards the military hospital, whither a wounded, aide-de-camp had been conveyed, Prinzip, a Servian student at the High School, dashed forward and fired two shots from a Browning pistol. The first shot hit the Duches3 on the right side of the body and the second struck the Archduke Francis in the throaty severing the carotid artery. The Duchess fainted and fell at her husband's knees, and the Archduke became unconscious. They were conveyed to Konak, but both had meanwhile succumbed. The two criminals were almost lynched.
PERSONALITY, OF THE ASSASSIN,
INTENDED TO KILL SOME EMINENT
SHOTS FIRED AT CLOSE RANGE,
SERAJEVO, June 29. (Received June 29, at 10 p.m.)
The Archduke Francis and his wife, while motoring from the barracks to the Town Hall stopped outside the Girls' High School. They had re-started, when Cabrinovic's bomb struck the back of the car, and, falling behind it, exploded under the second car, containing the Archduke's suite. Colonel Merizzo, one of the occupants, was wounded in the neck. The Archduke stopped the car, and, learning what had happened, proceeded.
The pair were ovationed with enthusiasm along the route because they had escaped assassination. News of the event had already spread among the crowd, and when the burgomaster began his address, the Archduke sharply interrupted as stated above, adding, "It is an amazing indignity." He then said, after a pause, "Now you may speak."
The Archduke, responding to the burgomaster's address, acknowledged the loyal demonstrations of the populace, describing it as an expression of joy at the failure of the attempt.
Although agitated, the pair lost no time in driving to the hospital, when Prinzip consummated the crime.
The Governor, who was in the Archduke's motor, was uninjured. Gavrillo Prinzip is a Serb. He was born at Grahovo, and studied for some time at Belgrade. When interrogated, he declared that for a long time he had intended to kill some eminent personage from nationalist motives. He fired when the car was slackening in order to turn into Franz Josef street. As the Duchess was in the car he hesitated a moment, then quickly fired two shots. He denies having accomplices. He stood at the corner of the street with his hand in his pocket, and was able to fire at close range owing to the narrowness of the thoroughfare.
...[see the original at PapersPast]
EPIROTES AND ALBANIANS.
Press Association—By Telegraph—Copyright
ATHENS, July 9.
After three days' fighting the Epirote insurgents captured Koritza, the Albanian garrison retreating to Valona.
ATTITUDE OF GERMANY.
BERLIN, July 10. (Received July 11, at 0.10 a.m.)
The Lokal Anzeiger, in an inspired article, states that if the responsibility of the Sarajevo crime is brought home to subjects of Servia, every step taken by Austria will receive the moral support of Germany.
PLOT AGAINST THE KAISER.
BERLIN, July 10. (Received July 11, at 0. 10 a.m.)
The police in April received an anonymous letter alleging that the Serb-Slavonian Committee at Berlin was planning an attempt on the Kaiser's life.
QUESTIONS IN HUNGARIAN PARLIAMENT.
VIENNA, July 10.
(Received July 11, at 0.10 am.)
Count Tisza was studiously reserved in his replies to interpellations in the Hungarian House of Representatives with regard to the assassinations at Serajevo.
AUSTRIA AND SERVIA.
(Times and Sydney Sun Services.)
VIENNA, July 9.
The press is vehemently attacking Servia.
The Pester Lloyd says: Servia will be shown to be a nest of pestilential rats, which came from her territory over our border to spread death and destruction. If she shows a readiness to exterminate them she will have brought forward proof of her upright sentiments, wiich have been disreputable of late. [see the original at PapersPast]
THE FRENCH ARMY
HIGHLY SENSATIONAL DISCLOSURES.
A STATE OF COMPLETE UNPREPAREDNESS.
NOTHING READY FOR WAR.
A PITIFUL MINISTERIAL ADMISSION.
Press Association—By Telegraph-—Copyright.
PARIS, July 14. (Received July 14, at 10.20 p.m.)
A sensation was caused in the Senate today. M. Charles Humbert, reporter for the Army Committee, surprised the Government by disclosing administrative scandals. He accused the general staff of gross incompetence, and the manufacturers of supplying armoured turrets inferior to those furnished to foreign countries; the supply of gun ammunition was insufficient, the shells were old and dangerous to handle, the howitzers old and inferior to Germany's. French inventors were not, he said, encouraged. The Government had arranged to spend £4,000,000 upon mortars invented in France in 1910, and nothing had yet been done, though it now employed the services of Germany and Russia. Communications between the fortresses on the eastern frontier were hopelessly deficient. The army was short of two million pairs of boots, and in the event of war the soldiers would start to the front with none except those on their feet. The army at present had only sufficient pontoons and other equipment to cross the Moselle and the Rhine. Millions of money voted for defence had been wasted. Parliament would consent to anv indispensable sacrifices, but it was essential to reorganise the army. M. Messimy admitted that most of M. Humbert's facts, taken separately, were correct; if not as presented, yet as exceptions. He promised to rigorously control the execution of the forthcoming programme. M. Clemenceau described the sitting as the most heartrending he remembered since 1870. He exclaimed "We neither covered nor defended the Government, and must uphold the situation and indicate a remedy."
The debate was adjourned. [see the original at PapersPast]
THE OTAGO DAILY TIMES THURSDAY, JULY 16, 1914.
THE ARMIES OF EUROPE.
The disclosures that have been published respecting the laches of the War Department in France may well be regarded as heartrending (to use M. Clemenceau's phrase) by the patriotic Frenchmen, the present Government is fortunate in being able, by reason of the brevity of its career, to repudiate any responsibility for the abuses.
Russian equanimity, which was almost upset the other day because there appeared to be some danger of an abandonment by the French Government of the three years military service system, will receive another shock by reason of the neglect, to give it the mildest term, which seems to have been a characteristic of the recent administration of the military affairs of the republic.
In a recent article the military correspondent of The Times touches briefly upon the military preparations of the principal Powers. In the case of the German army he points out that the schemes of 1913 are in course of successful execution, and the new law is beginning to bear fruit. He foresees that by the spring of 1915, when the second increased annual contingent will be not only incorporated but mobilisable, the German peace establishment will have reached the figure of nearly 870,000 of all ranks. German reserves again will grow until they ultimately number 5,400,000 fully-trained men, while the large increase in the number of reservists called up for training this year enables the ranks to be well filled at any moment of danger. The peace strength of the French army as a whole, this usually well-informed writer tells us, no longer presents that dangerous inferiority to the German figure that caused serious anxiety, but France is still much inferior to Germany in peace strength and has considerable forces tied up in North Africa. She is also beaten in the matter of reserves, for the French system will eventually produce 120,000 fewer Reservists than the German. "France," we read, "has done all that is humanly possible to maintain her military position in the world, and looks confidently to her allies and friends to support her in preserving the balance of power not only on land but at sea." The action of Russia is an important consideration in relation to the maintenance of the balance of power between the Triple Alliance and the Entente. The Russian reply to the new German law has been very forcible. The cost of the Russian army is approximately equal to that of the British army and navv combined. An important factor in the increase is the annual contingent that is coming forward to serve with the colours: this will apparently be stronger than before by 125,000 or 150,000 men. The duration of military service in Russia being from three to four years, while total peace establishment will be raised within that period by about 150.000 men. and a total peace strength of about 1,700,000 will be obtained—or approximately double that of Germany. Even with all due deduction, observes the military correspondent of The Times, the Russian reply to Germany is next door to a mobilisation in time of peace. It is suggested that that reply to the German law, combined with the sacrifice of France and the growth of the British navy, completely reverses the results which Germane expected from her naval and military laws. Neither in peace strengths nor in aggregate war strengths nor in numerical strength at sea will the Triplice have any advantage over the Entente when existing laws and building programmes have worked themselves out. It may reasonably be doubted whether, if Germany had foreseen the action of the Powers embraced within the Entente in reply to her laws, these laws would ever have been drafted. The conclusion is that the German people are worse off in a military sense than before. France and Russia have shown themselves prepared to make great sacrifices to maintain the balance of power. The revelations which have just been published concerning important aspects of the French military organisation do not affect the sacrifice that the nation has made, but righteous indignation will be aroused at the thought that the price paid has not been productive of the efficiency that was to have been expected. [see the original at PapersPast]
THE OTAGO DAILY TIMES SATURDAY, JULY 25, 1914.
AUSTRIA AND SERVIA
THE ULTIMATUM RECEIVED.
A STRINGENT NOTE.
Press Association—By Telegraph—Copyright.
BELGRADE, July 26. (Received July 24, at 9.20 p.m.) The Austrian Note has been received. It is couched in sharp terms, and confirms the forecast cabled out. It requests a reply by 6 o'clock on Saturday night. It demands the arrest of Major Taukovitch and Giganovitch, a Servian State employee; also the punishment of frontier officials for facilitating the passage of the perpetrators of the Serajevo assassinations.
WHAT A LETTER DISCLOSED.
THE HATCHERS OF THE PLOT.
BELGRADE, July 23.
(Received July 24, at 9.20 p.m.)
The ultimatum set forth that as a result of the Serajevo magisterial inquiry, an opened note proved that the crime was hatched at Belgrade by Prinzip, Cabimovitch, Giganovitch, and Grabez, with the assistance of Taukovitch. Bombs from the Servian army store were delivered to these persons, and Giganovitch instructed the perpetrators in the use of the bombs and Browning pistols.
SERVIA'S PROBABLE OFFER
VIENNA, July 23, (Received July 24, at 9.30 p.m.)
Several army corps are making ready the river warships for proceeding to Semtig.
The Allegemeine Zeitung states that it is believed that M. Pasics is willing to give Austria satisfaction regarding accomplices found in Servia. [see the original at PapersPast]
THE OTAGO DAILY TIMES MONDAY, JULY 27, 1914.
SERVIA REJECTS ULTIMATUM
INTENSE EXCITEMENT ON THE CONTINENT
AUSTRIA'S OPPORTUNE MOMENT
RUSSIA AND GERMANY ACTIVE
A DEPLORABLE OUTLOOK
Press Association—By Telegraph—Copyright,
BERLIN, July 24. The Government has issued a statement to the effect that Austria drafted the Servian Note without consulting Germany, which will hold aloof from possible conflict unless another Power intervenes. In that case Germany will fulfil her duty towards her ally.
WAR PRACTICALLY DECLARED
THE GERMAN PRESS
BERLIN, July 25,
(Received July 26, at 5.5 p.m.)
The newspapers approve of the Note. The Kreuz Zeitung says that the labour troubles in Russia, M. Humbert's revelations in France, and the Ulster question deprive Servia of much hope of support from Europe. Germany is willing to carry out its duties under the Triple Alliance to the fullest extent.
The Tageblatt says that if any third party attempts to cripple Austria, Germany's power will be thrown is[sic] Austria's favour.
The Neueste Nahrichten says:—"Let it be known on the Neva that a Russian attack on Austria will mean war with Germany."
The Berlin Post takes Austria to task upon the nature of its demands, which it describes as impossible. It doubts if Austria desires settlement except by arms.
MEETING OF RUSSIAN CABINET.
EXTENSION OF ULTIMATUM DESIRED.
EUROPEAN DIPLOMACY WANTED.
ST. PETERSBURG, July 25.
(Received tfuly 26, at 5.5 p.m.)
The Cabinet held a meeting, lasting four hours. It is understood that it was resolved ask Austria to prolong the ultimatum to enable European diplomacy to exercise action. The Cabinet's view is that Austria cannot be the sole protagonist of the Servian question. Austria's grievances should be laid before the Powers. In the event of Austria refusing to prolong the ultimatum, extreme measures may be looked for, owing to the feeling in Russia.
A DEFIANT ARTICLE.
ULTIMATUM MUST BE WITHDRAWN.
ST. PETERSBURG, July 25.
(Received July 26, at 5.5 p.m.)
The Novoe Vremya, in a defiant article, declares that Austria must deal with Russia unless the ultimatum is withdrawn; also because it is really directed against Russia.
AMAZEMENT IN ITALY.
POWER OF ROUMANIA.
ROME, July 25.
(Received July 26, at 5.5 p.m.) The tone of the Note has caused amazement here. The Tribuna declares that Austria wishes to exclude every loophole of conciliation. The Note has not the approval of Italy.
The Giornale D'ltalia says that the Note is the most terribly humiliating ever inflicted on any State. It points out that Roumania has power to make it impossible for Austria to attack Servia by raising the Transylvania question.
OPINION IN FRANCE.
SERVIA WILL NOT APPEAL IN VAIN.
PARIS, July 25.
(Received July 26, at 5.5 p.m.)
The press condemns the Note.
Debats declares that should Servia be forced to war she will not appeal in vain for the support of those Powers which wish to maintain the balance of power at all costs. Most of the newspapers remark that Austria has chosen a moment when President Poincare and M. Viviani are absent, when Russia is involved in industrial turmoil, and when Britain is involved with the Ulster problem.
REJOIN THEIR REGIMENTS.
BERLIN, July 25.
(Received July 26, at 5.5 p.m.)
Many of the Austrian reservists have left Berlin to rejoin their regiments.
NO TERRITORIAL ACQUISITION.
ASSURANCE BY AUSTRIA.
VIENNA, July 25.
(Received July 26, at 5.5 p.m.)
Austria has given an assurance that she does not intend to make any territorial acquisition in Servia. [see the original at PapersPast]
THE OTAGO DAILY TIMES WEDNESDAY, JULY 29, 1914
THE EUROPEAN CRISIS.
It is earnestly to be hoped that the efforts which the Minister for Foreign Affairs is making to secure a respite of operations in Eastern Europe with the object of establishing, if possible, a "modus vivendi" will be crowned with success. The horrors of a war such as must be developed if the Powers between which diplomatic relations have already been suspended cannot be induced to abstain from active hostilities are such as cannot be contemplated without the gravest apprehension. Sir Edward Grey, who is habitually careful to avoid the use of extravagant language, says that if the attempt, for which he is responsible, to intervene between these countries should fail the greatest catastrophe that could befall the European Concert will happen and the consequences will be incalculable. This statement conveys a solemn warning and a justifiable one. It should profoundly appeal to the great nations which are in danger of being dragged into a war that is not of their seeking, and it should not be without its effect upon them. The causes of friction between Austria and Servia may be acute enough. They are, we may be reasonably sure, not confined to the issue which furnished the proximate motive for the delivery by Austria of her too peremptory ultimatum to Servia. They are, it may be confidently assumed, rooted deeply in racial antipathies. It would probably be vain to hope that harmonious relations can ever exist between Austria and Servia. The fact that they are neighbouring countries only increases the certainty that they will be continually girding at each other. But it is futile to suppose that any quarrel between them can be localised. The interests of other nations in the East of Europe are such as to preclude any expectation of that. The attitude which Russia has already assumed in the present crisis offers a sufficient proof that a war between Austria and Servia, once commenced, must extend over a very wide area. It is, however, of supreme importance that a general European war should be averted, if that be at all practicable. It is to be confessed, however, that the outlook is not promising. An unconfirmed report in a Berlin paper states that Austria has already invaded Servia, and it is apparent that offensive preparations on the part of Austria and defensive preparations on the part of Servia are being hurried on. It is probably true that, as is suggested this morning, the decision whether there shall be peace or war rests with Germany. But the news supplied in our cable messages from that country do not encourage the belief that she will exercise her influence in favour of peace. Sir Edward Grey's proposal, which has been received with approval in some parts of the Continent, where its design and spirit are alike appreciated, seems to have been strangely misinterpreted in diplomatic quarters in Berlin. It is there pretended that the British Foreign Minister does not seek to intervene in the dispute between Austria and Servia. It should be patent that this is precisely what he does seek to do. As Earl Crewe put it in the House of Lords the view taken by the British Government of the Servian reply to the Austrian Note is that this apparently afforded a basis upon which the friendly and disinterested Powers might arrange a generally acceptable settlement. If this view is rejected — if it is held that, as is asserted in Germany, the trouble between Austria and Servia is no business of Great Britain — the hopes of a successful intervention are slender indeed. [see the original at PapersPast]
THE OTAGO DAILY TIMES THURSDAY, JULY 30, 1914
THE DEFENCE FORCES.
The cable columns will keep readers fully supplied with details concerning the great European crisis that has been precipitated by Austria's ultimatum to Servia. One outstanding lesson should impress itself at this juncture, and that is the need for being ready. In the time of peace, preparation for defence seems to some people a waste of time and money. The present crisis makes to such an arresting reply. Here at a few hours' notice we have the whole of the European nations facing the possibility of war. The nation neglecting preparation would to-day be in a pitiable plight. No more forcible argument in support of the New Zealand scheme could be presented, and no other should be necessary. [see the original at PapersPast]
THE OTAGO DAILY TIMES THURSDAY, AUGUST 3, 1914
THE BURSTING OF THE WAR CLOUD.
But a few days have passed since the ultimatum of Austria to Servia sent the rumour of war on its lightning course through the Chancellories of Europe, and fewer since a formal declaration, on the part of the Dual Monarchy warned the world that the conflicting elements in that danger zone, the East of Europe, threatened the most serious blow to its peace in modern times. The gravest anticipations of the magnitude of the menace have unfortunately been already justified in an alarming degree. Since Austria made her decisive move the peace of Europe has hung in the balance, and the scale has unfortunately dipped sadly in the wrong direction. The action of Austria gave speedy impulse to measures of mobilisation on the part of each of the Great Powers that considered its interests vitally implicated in the fate of Servia. Germany then became the cynosure of all eyes. If the action of Austria was a challenge to Russia, that of Russia seemed likely to provoke prompt retaliation from the powerful ally of Austria. So it has proved in the sequel. The extension of the area of conflict has proceeded precisely in the automatic way that had been predicted. It is to be regretted that the process is capable of proceeding far beyond its present stage, and it is the imminent danger of its extending to the limits of its influence that makes the present outlook so dark. The German demand that Russia should cease mobilisation within a given time was not complied with. There little expectation that it would be. The news which we publish this morning, that Germany has declared war upon Russia, is an announcement fraught with possibilities of a most far reaching character. Moreover, these are already revealing themselves only too surely in various aspects. The first shots are said to have been exchanged across the Russo-German frontier. The Kaiser's speech at Berlin constitutes a plea that Germany has done her utmost in the interests of peace at St Petersburg as well as at Vienna and Belgrade, and that a sword has been forced into her hand. The German Emperor may have worked zealously for peace in his way; albeit his way has unfortunately not been that of Sir Edward Grey. In the meantime, however, it is the hard facts of the situation and their probable sequel that command universal attention. With mobilisation the order of the day in Austria, Russia, Germany, and France, the magnitude of the conflict that is at hand stuns the imagination. France must already be held to be hopelessly involved in the struggle. Her bond with Russia will be carried out, and she will probably be the first objective of Germany's attack. It is not only the movement of troops on the Franco-German frontier that suggests this. According to well-informed authorities, Germany has latterly been pushing on schemes for conveying large bodies of troops to the French frontier by way of Belgium. The assassination at Paris, under peculiarly dastardly circumstances, of the eminent French Socialist, M. Jaures, is an episode that strikes an ill note amid the reported French enthusiasm over the order for mobilisation. Its probable effect may be to arouse the antagonism of the Socialists at a time when national unity is an absolute necessity. Reports from Rome suggest that Italy, the third member of the Triple Alliance, is desirous of remaining neutral, regarding, the obligations of the Alliance as applicable only in respect to a defensive war. All the indications point to Italy feeling somewhat aggrieved at Austria for acting on her own initiative, and, apart from their alliance, Italy and Austria are by no means fiee from mutual rivalry. But there seems no good reason to hope that neutrality will be possible for Italy, even if she is anxious to adopt that position. But the gravest consideration which must be causing profound anxiety throughout the British Empire at the present time is the course that Great Britain will find it necessary to take in this overwhelming crisis. There is no escape from the conclusion that the outlook is as grave as it could be. It seeme to be a foregone conclusion in the eyes of Europe that Great Britain cannot avoid becoming a belligerent on the side of her friends of the Triple Entente. In a glance at the possibilities of the situation, the statement attributed to the Japanese Ambassador in London, that if Great Britain should be embroiled Japan will act in the spirit of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance, is not to be ignored, capable as it is of more than one interpretation. The military view has been that in the event of Great Britain finding herself engaged in a Continental war she would take prompt steps to transport an expeditionary force across the Channel for the purpose of lending assistance to France. Speculation in this direction has received no support so far from any word of mobilisation in the Old Country. The steps taken thus far by the British authorities, who may, however, have been less communicative than those on the Continent, appear to have been of a mainly precautionary character. They include the assumption by the Government of control of the Welsh coal mines. But the gloom of the situation is practically unrelieved. The recall of shipping, the stoppage of the export trade, and various other symptoms indicate realisation and experience of an hour of gravest stress in which the whole Empire participates. The tribute of the American press to British national calmness at such a time will doubtless, however, be well earned. [see the original at PapersPast]
THE OTAGO DAILY TIMES THURSDAY, AUGUST 6, 1914
FORMAL DECLARATION BY BRITAIN
RECEIPT OF NEWS IN NEW ZEALAND
NUMEROUS OUTBURSTS OF LOYALTY
VOLUNTEERS FOR EXPEDITIONARY FORCE
GERMAN HIGH SEA FLEET
REPORTED DEPARTURE FROM KIEL
RUMOUR OF NAVAL FIGHT CONTRADICTED
SERVIAN DEFEAT OF AUSTRIANS
A Second Edition of the Daily Times will be issued early in the forenoon, containing cable messages received too late for Inclusion in this issue.
Press Association— LONDON, August 3.
Germany has sent an ultimatum to Belgium demanding the military use of Belgian territory. An answer was demanded by seven o'clock this morning. It stated that Belgium has refused permission. In the House of Commons, Sir E. Grey said that the King of Belgium had telegraphed a supreme appeal to Great Britain to safeguard Belgian integrity. Sir Edward did not know whether an ultimatum had been sent to Belgium, but if so it was clearly Great Britain's obligatioin to do her utmost to prevent the consequences. The fleet had been mobilised and the Army was mobilising, but the Government had not yet promised to send an expeditionary army abroad.
BRITISH NEUTRALITY DESIRED.
LONDON, August 3.
The German Embassy here has announced that Germany is prepared to abstain from attacking the north-east coast of France or using the Belgian-Dutch coast if Great Britain will remain neutral for the time being. It is argued that by doing this Great Britain will render th maximum of assistance to France without going to war. In the House of Commons, Sir E. Grey said Great Britain yesterday gave France an assurance of help if the German Navy attacked her in the North Sea or the English Channel. Germany's undertaking not to attack the north-east coast of France if Great Britain pledged herself to neutrality was far too narrow an engagement.
FURTHER GERMAN AGGRESSION.
SWISS AND BELGIAN TOWNS OCCUPIED.
LONDON, August 3. The Daily Telegraph states that the Germans have occupied Arlon (Belgium) and the Swiss railway station at Basle.
DEMONSTRATIONS OF LOYALTY
PROFFERS OF HELP TO BRITAIN.
SYDNEY, August 5.
Federal Ministers remain in continuous Cabinet. They are in close touch with the naval and military authorities. Frequent communications are being received from the Imperial authorities, but their contents are not being disclosed. All the State Governments have advised the Commonwealth Prime Minister (Mr Cook) that they are ready and, willing to support his offer to the Imperial Government and in all other ways. The searchlights at the various main harbours are kept going throughout the night. Great demonstrations of loyalty took place at all the theatres, also at the reception to the visiting football teams participating at the Olympic carnival.
GERMAN VESSELS IN THE PACIFIC.
STEAMERS DETAINED AT NEWCASTLE,
SYDNEY, August 5.
It has been learned that the German mercantile vessels which during the past few days have hurriedly left all Australian ports did so under sealed orders. It is rumoured that they are all making for a general meeting-place, and will probably be collected by the German Pacific squadron in the vicinity of German New Guinea, and convoyed to some neutral port, possibly Manila. It is stated that the officials at Newcastle have bean instructed not to allow the German steamer and three sailing vessels now there to depart. This cutting off of German trade means a severe blow to the trade of Sydney and other Australian ports.
. [see the original at PapersPast]
THE OTAGO DAILY TIMES THURSDAY, AUGUST 6, 1914
The expected has happened. Great Britain has been forced into the European war. It had for the past few days been apparent that it would be with difficulty that she could abstain from participation in it. The deliberate refusal on the part of Germany to respect the neutrality of Belgium, of which the Kaiser, in his capacity as King of Prussia, is one of the guarantors, swept away the last hope that Great Britain could remain a passive spectator of the tragedy on the Continent. The sequel has been the declaration of war against Germany by Great Britain. This grave step has been taken with reluctance and in the face of a certain amount of remonstrance. Some of the Radical and Labour members of the House of Commons passionately pleaded with the Government to make a supreme effort to relieve Great Britain from the necessity of intervening in the conflict, and declared that there was insufficient ground for subjecting the poorer classes of the population to the hardships incidental to a war that would, as Sir Edward Grey admitted, be terribly costly. An appeal of this character cannot have left the Government, any more than it can leave any individual, wholly unmoved, But there must be a limit to the forbearance of a nation, and a nation can have no less regard for her honour than a private citizen has for his. It was with pertect truth that Sir Edward Grey declared that a proclamation of unconditional neutrality by Great Britain would have exposed her to the sacrifice of her good name throughout the world. He put the matter, indeed, very tersely and forcibly at the sitting of the House on the previous day when he said that Great Britain could not run away from her obligations of honour in respect of the neutrality of Belgium. There is the additional aspect, moreover, in which the situation had to be viewed— an aspect which has not been ignored by the Foreign Minister. It is that the abstention of Great Britain from the present war might render her liable to more serious perils than any involved in her participation in the conflict that has now set the Continent ablaze from east to west. Great Britain simply cannot, with due regard to her own safety and integrity, sit calmly by while a European war is being waged the issue of which might be such a change in the geography of the Continent as would gTavely disturb the existing balance of power. It is this consideration, doubtless, which appeals with special force to most British minds, and it is a consideration which surely justifies the expression by Sir Edward Grey of the hope that the people of the United Kingdom will support with determination and resolution the Government in the momentous step that has been taken by it.
The King has addressed to the overseas dominions a message in which he expresses the confident belief that in the hour of trial the Empire will stand united, calm, and resolute. His Majesty's appeal will, we feel assured, not be made in vain. The unity of the Empire has, indeed, already been convincingly demonstrated. The most striking proof has been afforded of the devotion of the British people throughout the world to the ancient institutions that are the expression and the embodiment of their liberties. They are not unmindful of the traditions of their race and they may be depended upon to show that they are not degenerate sons of their fathers. They will be cheered by the emphatic declaration, which the Minister of Foreign Affairs has made, that Great Britain is prepared for the titanic struggle into which she has, however unwillingly, felt compelled to fling herself. They are themselves prepared to take what part may be permitted to them in the clash of arms. The Governor has, in the name of New Zealand, intimated that she is prepared to make any sacrifice to maintain her heritage and her birthright. The terms of this message will be generally acclaimed throughoutthe dominion. The most tangible form in which New Zealand can at the present time manifest her readiness to accept the responsibilities that devolve upon her as part of the Empire is the equipment of an expeditionary force that may be utilised to garrison British possessions where the maintenance of armed forces is regarded as essential. Both Houses of Parliament yesterday, without a dissentient voice, passed resolutions expressing approval of the measures that have been taken by the Government with a view to the organisation of such a force, and we publish this morning the conditions under which applications for enrolment, in the force may be made.
... The ensuing few weeks will be a period of anxiety and suspense for the whole population, but there is no cause for panic, and it may at least be hoped that it will be after a short, though perhaps extremely sharp, conflict that the issue will be determined—in, it is devoutly to be prayed, under Divine providence, the triumph of the Empire and the nations associated with her
. [see the original at PapersPast]
THE OTAGO DAILY TIMES THURSDAY, AUGUST 6, 1914
THE KING'S PROCLAMATION
GOVERNOR READS THE MESSAGE.
GREAT CROWD AT PARLIAMENT BUILDINGS.
DEMONSTRATIONS OF LOYALTY.
(From Our Own Correspondent.)
WELLINGTON, August 5.
Events marched rapidly to-day. There were no newspaper bulletins of importance in the early part of the day, but the presence of the Governor, the Commandant of the Forces (Sir Alexander Godley), and the naval adviser to the Government (Captain Hall Thompson) at Parliament House indicated that some further'step in connection with the war in Europe was being taken. At the conclusion of the conference with Ministers of the Crown, an announcement was made that his Excellency the Governor would, at 3 p.m., read a message from his Majesty the King. The communication made to the press was that the message was an important one, but that it did not contain anything about a declaration of war. This news was quickly posted at the newspaper offices, and was read by thousands of passers-by. ... As the hour went past the crowd rapidly increased, and there evident a tense feeling such as is noticeable only upon historic occasions. ... Before 3 o'clock an assemblage, estimated at fully 10,000 people, had gathered in the grounds and in the adjacent streets. There was a full attendance of members of Parliament, both Houses having adjourned for the occasion. On all hands there was an evident feeling of suppressed excitement and eager anticipation. His Excellency the Governor, advancing to the edge of the steps, announced that he had received the following message from the King:
"I desire to express to my people of the overseas dominions with what happy appreciation and pride I have received the messages from their respective Governments during the last few days. These spontaneous assurances of their fullest support recall to me the generous self-sacrificing help given by them in the past to the Mother Country. I shall be strengthened in the discharge of the great responsibilities which rest upon me by the confldent belief that in this time of trial my Empire will stand united, calm, and resolute, trusting in God.—(Signed) George, R. I."
To this had been sent the following reply
"New Zealand desires me to acknowledge your Majesty's gracious message, and to say that come good or ill she, in company with the dominions and other dependencies of the Crown, is prepared to make any sacrifice to maintain her heritage and her birthright.—
(Signed) Liverpool, Governor."
The reading of these messages provoked expressions of genuine enthusiasm, but a feeling of intense expectancy came over the vast assembly as his Excellency proceeded to read yet another document which proved to be a cable from the Secretary of State for the Colonies: "War has broken out with Germany.— (Signed) Harcourt."
No sooner was this announcement made than a wild burst of cheering broke out. A verse of the National Anthem was sung, and cheers followed cheers for several minutes. When quiet was restored the crowd was addressed by the Prime Minister, who was greeted with cheers. He said: "After the very startling announcement which has been made by his Excellency I trust that we are all of one way of thinking — that the British people and the Empire are to-day face to face with the most serious crisis ever experienced, in the history of the Empire, and we are confident that we shall come through successfully.—(Loud cheers.) We must take notice of the very earnest advice contain in in the last announcement of the message from his Majesty the King. We must stand together calm, united, and resolute, trusting in God, and I am glad to say that not only in New Zealand does this feeling of confidence exist, but it obtains throughout every part of the Empire. The whole British people are to-day able to present a united front to our enemies. We have done our duty on every occasion in the past when the Empire required assistance, and we will do our duty on the present occasion in a whole-hearted manner. That we will be called upon to make sacrifices goes without saying, but I am confident that those sacrifices will be made individually and collectively, willingly, and in a manner according with the highest traditions of our race and the Empire to which we belong. We must do everything possible to protect our country, and at the same time to assist the Empire. When we have done all that mortal man can do; the rest must be left to the Higher Power— 'Him who watches over Israel and slumbers not nor sleeps.' My advice at the most trying moment is to keen cool, stand fast, and do your duty to New Zealand and the Empire.'
PATRIOTISM OF THE DOMINION.
OFFERS OF ASSISTANCE.
(From Our Own Correspondent.)
WELLINGTON, August 5.
Offers of assistance from all parts of tho dominion continue bo pour in to the Government and to the Territorial officers. It is impossible in the limited space available to give a complete list, but the following may be cited as typical examples. The Bealey Flat offer is probably from the tunnel workers there. The Otago Motor Club offer is typical of similar offers from every motor association in New Zealand. The Arawa tribe have also sent a message saying that they are prepared to fight in any clime as their ancestors fought previously for England in the Maori war:—
Wairoa, August 5, 1914.—The Prime Minister, Wellington. The Natives desire me to transmit a translation of a resolution unanimously passed to-day amid enthusiasm. This meeting of Ngatikahanga Maori people express their loyalty to the throne in the present time of stress, and offer their services whenever needed in defence of the Empire.—R. N. Jones, Judge...
[see the original at PapersPast]
THE EXPEDITIONARY FORCE
An open-air meeting attended by 6,0OO people was held at Invercargill last night. Patriotic speeches were made appealing for funds, and also horses and other gifts, and for enrolments in the Expeditionary Force. £1000 was subscribed in a few minutes. The Mayor (Mr Duncan M'Farlane) gave his year's honorarium. The Invercargill Savings Bank has given £500, having received the Government's sanction. Mr W. M'Alister promised £200. The meeting was preceded by a huge procession, including motor cars, decorated with flags. The National Mortgage Company's employees have given £100 for horses. The newly-formed Southland League decided to take any steps that may be necessary, in particular to assist in raising troops, and funds for local distress. A representative and enthusiastic meeting of railwaymen this afternoon decided to ask each member of the service to contribute voluntarily at least one day's pay per month in aid of the New Zealand war fund, until further notice. At a meeting of the Southland branch of the Public Service Association, a motion was carried unanimously that the Public Service Commissioner should be telegraphed, and informed that the members of the branch are desirous that he should inform the Prime Minister of their sincere wish to render every assistance in carrying on the work during any officer's absence.
[see the original at PapersPast]
THE GALLIPOLI CAMPAIGN
SUVLA AND ANZAC EVACUATED
Troops Withdrawn Without Loss
Remarkable Military and Naval Feat
Splendid Tribute to the "Anzacs"
IMMORTAL FAME ACHIEVED
(By Telegraph.—Press Assn. —Copyright)
.... The position at Sedd-ul Bahr is protected by a double line of ships. It may be assumed that the position will be held, otherwise its evacuation would have preceded that of Anzac.
The Globe says that for sentimental considerations the withdrawal from Anzac will be received with regret, but sentiment does not count in war. The changed situation since the participation in the war by the Bulgars has resulted in a new situation which necessitates this withdrawal from Turkish soil, hallowed by the blood of so many of our Empire's sons.
The Daily Chronicle says the withdrawal must have been a sore wrench, to the Australians and New Zealanders, whose heroism made Anzac immortal. Yet few of them will but feel that it is truer loyalty to withdraw and fight elsewhere than display obstinate valour in a hopeless position. The wisdom of the original landing at Anzac is doubtful, as it drew off men badly needed at the other end of the peninsula, and was the most difficult and most costly position to hold. It was not the fault of the Anzac men that the movement failed. The fatal slowness of the Suvla Commander ruined the whole plan.
THE TIMES COMPLIMENTARY.
NOBLE AND TRAGIC HISTORY.
ANZAC’S SHARE CHIEF HONOURS.
ALTERED STRATEGIC VALUE.
LONDON, December 21.
Received December 21, 9.35 p.m.
The Times says that the ease with which the withdrawal was effected will bring intense relief. It was a wonderful organising feat which will be found as extraordinary as the heroic landing. The immortal Twenty-ninth Division and the glorious Australian and New Zealand Corps share the chief honours of some of the noblest and most tragic pages in the British Empire's history. Australian and New Zealand courageous dead lie on the abandoned cliffs, and their memory will never fade.
Other newspapers emphasise the relief that is felt, and praise the brilliant achievement of withdrawing the force scathlessly. The Press Bureau's official statement is:—The British, in conformity with the Allied plan, have withdrawn from Suvla, the strategic value of which has been diminished by the new development in the East. The embarkation was carried out in the best condition, unmolested by the Turks.
WITHOUT THE TURKS’ KNOWLEDGE
COMMANDING GENERALS AND NAVY PRAISED.
The High Commissioner reports , London, 20th December, 9:50 p.m:--
From the Dardenelles further details have been received of the evacuation of Anzac and Suvla. Without the Turks being aware of the movement a great army was with-drawn from the area occupied on the Gallipoli Penisula, although in close contact with the enemy. By this extraction of the front operations in other parts of the line will be more effectively carried out.
Major-General Monro gives great credit for the skilful transition of the forces to the General commanding and the Royal Navy.
MR MASSEY INTERVIEWED.
DEPRECATES CARPING CRITICISM.
THE TIME FOR A UNITED FRONT.
LEAVE CRITICISM TILL THE WAR IS WON.
(Per United Press Association.
WELLLINGTON, December 20
To-night the Prime Minister made a brief statement to a New Zealand Times reporter, with regard to the news of the retirement from Anzac and Suvla Bay. Mr Massey deprecated any carping criticism of the Imperial authorities at this time and urged that the duty of every patriotic citizen of the Empire at this juncture was to join in presenting a united front to the enemy.
“The cablegram with regard to the retirement is not quite as explicit as we should like, but most people will agree that under the circumstances the proper thing has been done,” said the Prime Minister. "It may be that mistakes have been made in the past, but it is better to face the position and have done with it for the time being than to go on with an enterprise that is commonly believed to have been the result of an error of judgment. It is a matter for sincere congratulation that the transfer has been effected without loss Of life. I trust this will not be made an occasion for a repetition of the bitter criticism and display of personal and political animosity, of which we have had far too much during the present conflict. I do not suppose anything has encouraged the enemy so much as the idea which has been allowed to go forward that the British people were seriously divided in their opinions with regard to the conduct of the war. Whatever the mistakes that have been made, or whatever our domestic differences may he, they can stand over until the end of the war for discussion, when the fighting is and victory is won. Let us in the meantime present a united front to the enemy, and show the world that every mistake and every reverse only increases our determination to see the war through to a conclusion which will be satisfactory to Britain and her Allies."
GALLIPOLI PARTIALLY EVACUATED
WITHDRAWAL FROM SUVLA AND ANZAC.
LONDON, December 20.
The War Office announces that all the troops at Suvla and Anzac, with guns and stores, have been transferred with insignificant casualties.
MR ASQUITH’S STATEMENT.
DECISION MADE SOME TIME AGO.
OPERATION CONSPICUOUSLY SUCCESSFUL.
SIR lAN HAMILTON’S REPORT.
PUBLICATION IN DUE COURSE.
LONDON, December 20.
In the House of Commons, Mr Asquith said that the troops had been successfully transferred, in pursuance of a decision that Cabinet had made some time ago. The operations reflected the utmost credit on the Admiralty staff and all ranks. Mr H. J. Tennant (Under-Secretary for War) said that Sir Ian Hamilton's report on the Suvla Bay operations had been received by the Government, and was under consideration. There would be no avoidable delay in its publication.
LORD LIVERPOOL ADVISED.
TROOPS FROCEED ELSEWHERE.
WELLINGTON. December 21.
The Governor has received the following cablegram from the Secretary of State, dated London, December 20; "In order that they may take part in other operations, all troops have been transferred from Suvla and Anzac. The transfer was effected without loss of personnel or material."
ANZACS IMMORTAL FAME.
THEY FOUGHT LIKE DEMONS.
FAILURE NOT THEIR FAULT.
LONDON, December 20.
The Evening News stales that the evacuation of Anzac is one of the sensations of the war. While it does not indicate a complete withdrawal it proves that an offensive, costing 200,000 casualties has ended. It is a relief to know that the calculations of experts regarding the losses likely to be incurred during the retirement were not fulfilled. The “Anzacs" have won immortal fame by fighting like demons against the best defensive troops in the world. When their ammunition became exhausted they followed up the enemy with stones and fists during the Suvla landing. The "Anzacs," in an inglorious attack, gained the crest of Sari-Bahr. It was not their fault that the rest of the attach had a painful setback. What has happened since the Suvla operations is unknown to the public
SPECULATION IN LONDON.
TRIBUTES TO THE COLONIALS.
LONDON. December 20. Received December 21. 2.30 p.m.
The abandonment of Anzac and Suvla is the sensation of the day. Newspapers were hurriedly brought up as the newsboys, with placards dashed through the streets. Later editions were in equal demand in the hope of details beyond the bald War Office announcement. There is much speculation as to whether it is a prelude to the complete evacuation of Gallipoli, also whether the Anzacs will be given temporary rest protecting the Canal or will be transferred to Salonika forthwith.
The newspapers are unanimous in emphasising the services of the Australians and New Zealanders, printing vivid stories of their doings and reproducing diaries of the principal events at Gallipoli and photographs of the generals.
Experts generally state that the withdrawal from Suvla Bay was the only course after the surprise initial attack failed.
Some newspapers opine that Sir lan Hamilton reported to this effect, and that Lord Kitchener came to the same conclusion after his visit.
The Star comments: So ends an enterprise whereon the highest hopes were built. The troops were always w thin a few miles of victory. The final cause of failure was the inability of the Suvla force to fulfil its contract with the Australians and New Zealanders advancing from Anzac. The Australians alone lost 25,000 men. The Gallipoli movement, however, immobilised a quarter of a million Turks.
AN OPERATION WITH TRAGIC POSSIBILITIES.
LONDON, December 20.
Received December 21. 9.40 p.m.
The Evening Standard congratulates General Monro on the success of the withdrawal, which threatened to be a rearguard action with tragic possibilities. It required military skill of a high order.
The Pall Mall Gazette states that the insignificant casualties formed particularly welcome news, since the operation of re-embarking troops under the fire of a powerful and well-posted enemy was one of much difficulty. It is widely believed that it must be attended by the heaviest losses. The abandonment of hard won positions cannot fail to arouse painful emotions. Anzac Cove and Suvla Bay were scenes of the most brilliant gallantry on the part of British, Australian, New Zealand and Indian forces, and would be linked by memories which would be always sacred in the annals of British warfare.
RELIEF TO THE FLEET AND MERCANTILE SERVICE.
THE SOUTHERN POSITION.
WILL PROBABLY BE HELD.
NAVAL EXPERT’S OPINION.
A WRENCH TO THE ANZACS.
LONDON, December 20.
Received December 21, 8.35 p.m.
The War Office states that General Monro gives great credit to the skilfully conducted transfer of the forces to the General Commanding and the Navy.
The Pall Mall Gazette's navy expert, states that the withdrawal will relieve the fleet and the mercantile service from heavy strain.